Barometer was invented by Evangelista Torricelli, an Italian physicist in 1643, to provide accurate air pressure date for predicting: a high pressure means a clear weather while a low pressure means a bad weather. The barometer in Panerai watch is placed in a metal barometer-capsule which is squeezed by different air pressure and then expands or shrinks, to convey such a message to hands in barometer.
Hygrometer is used to indicate the moisture of air. In the past two centuries, hygrometer founds its application in helping measure raindrop or fog. The old use is same we use it today. The first hygrometer was invented in 14th century when it was designed to eliminate the argument between wool dealer and buyer as different moister could contribute to the increment or decrement on weight.
Thermometer measures temperature. The first one that evolves thermometer to an actual reading is Anders Celsius, a Sweden astronomer. In 1742, he used mercury to indicate temperature and divided the temperature between the freezing point and boiling point of water into 100 parts. This way of measuring temperature become the conventional Celsius. In Panerai watches, two metals are applied to measure temperature: a spiral metal slice will bend with the changes of temperatures. The metal connects to hand to indicate reading while
Precision of time is critical date to navigator, because that many helps them calculate the magnitude and longitude, so that they will know where they are. The need for a precise chronograph gave birth to the navigation clock. Navigator clock is accurate instrument, and can work under terrible environment. Although wall clock was born in its retiring age, but it is still a exquisite tool, and a wall clock with the Panerai style and character echoes the classic design of the Panerai brand.